Bhubaneswar (in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, "The Lord of the Universe") is the capital of the state of Orissa, India. Once the capital of ancient Kalinga, the city has a long history and is today a center for commerce and religious activity. Bhubaneswar became the modern capital of the state of Orissa in 1948, a year after India gained its independence from Britain. The scriptures refer to the ancient Bhubaneswar as the "Ekamra Kshetra", literally meaning ‘mango orchards’ which remind us the union of Lord Shiva with Goddess Parvati. It is also known as "Ekamra Nagari". It is one of most important Shaiva Kshetras.
The history of the Bhubaneswar-Khurda region goes back 2000 years. Emperor Kharavela established his capital in Sisupalgarh which is on the outskirts of the city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri caves and Khandagiri caves are evidence of the region's antiquity. Modern Bhubaneswar was originally meant to be a well planned city with wide roads and many gardens and parks. The plan was made by Otto H. Koenigsberger, a German town planner. Though part of the city has stayed faithful to the plan, it has grown rapidly over the last few decades and has made the planning process unwieldy.