|Per capita net state domestic product (SDP) in Rs (2004-05)||27,048||28,355||23,222|
|Percentage share in total FDI approved (1991-03)||0.53||6.47||NA|
|Average annual growth of state domestic product in per cent (1993-94 to 2003-04)||5||5.7||5.6*|
|Per capita SDP in per cent (1993-94 to 2003-04)||4.1||3.6||3.8*|
|Percentage of population below poverty line (1999-00)||12.72||14.07||26.1|
|Range of min wages for unskilled workers in Rs (2005)||72-189||50-99||61-115|
|Job-seekers registered with employment exchanges in thousands (2003)||3635.1||998.1||41388.7|
|Percentage employment share (public/private, 2001-02)||52.8/47.2||53.6/46.4||69.0/31.0|
|Percentage of urban population (2001)||25.96||37.3||27.81|
|No. of females per 1,000 males (’01 census)||1058||920||933|
|Juvenile (0-6) sex ratio (2001)||963||878||927|
|Mean age for marriage (2004)||22.9||20.5||20.4|
|Female literacy rate (2001)||87.7||57.8||53.7|
|Currently married women who usually participate in household decisions in per cent||62.5||56.7||52.5|
|Women who have experienced spousal violence in per cent||16.4||27.6||37.2|
|Percentage of women with more than 10 years of education||49||24||22|
|Percentage of women’s employment to total employment (2003)||39.3||12.7||18.1*|
|Media, Roads, Slum and Voting|
|Percentage with regular exposure to media (TV, radio, newspaper at least once a week)||97||84||80|
|Percentage of slum population to total urban population (2001)||0.8||9.9||15|
|Teledensity per 100 persons (May 2007)||35.1||25.5||19.3|
|Total road length (km) per 100 sq km (2002)||386.8||70.2||74.7|
|Voting percentage (2004 elections)||71.45||45.2||58.1|
|Life expectancy at birth (1999-2003, M/F)||70.9/76||62.5/64.6||61.8/63.5|
|Number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births in the last five years||15||50||57|
|Institutional deliveries in the last three years in per cent||100||55||41|
|Mothers who had at least three antenatal care visits for their last birth in per cent||93.9||64.9||50.7|
|Vaccination coverage in per cent||75||45||44|
|Children age 6-35 months who are anaemic in per cent||55.7||80.1||79.2|
|Population served per government hospital bed||1,172||1,544||2,257|
|Children under 3 who are underweight in per cent||29||47||46|
|Per capita expenditure on health in Rs (2001-02)||1,858||816||997|
|Percentage of households that:|
|Have a television||67.7||53.8||44.2|
|Have a motorised vehicle||24.7||30.2||18.6|
|Live in a pucca house||84.1||56.4||41.4|
|Have access to a toilet facility||96||54.6||44.5|
|Use piped drinking water||24.6||72.7||42|
|Literacy rate (2001 census)||90.9||69.1|
|Percentage of schools with one teacher||0.1||5.7|
|No. of students for each teacher||26||36|
|Transition rate from primary to upper primary in per cent||86.6||82.7|
|Average classrooms in each school||10.5||4.8|
|Average number of instructional days||181||210|
|Percentage who go on to Grade V||108.5||78.9|
|Net primary enrolment ratio||64.1||75.9|
|Dropouts (Grade I-V) in per cent||5.8||2.2|
This blog itself was posted 6 years back -- and had based the conclusions on the latest data then available!
But your question suggests that more recent data will reveal a different picture. You could NOT be more wrong!
Let us look at the "Inequality adjusted Human Development Index for India’s States" as published by the UNDP. as recently as 2011-
a) Income per Capita (PPP 2008 US $) :-
* Kerala -- US$ 5262.89
* Gujarat -- US$ 3782.87
b) Life expectancy at Birth
* Kerala -- 74 Years
* Gujarat -- 64.1 Years
c) Human Development Index
* Kerala -- 0.625 (1st Rank)
* Gujarat -- 0.514 (8th Rank)
What we see is that even by data available in 2011, Kerala continues to outperform Gujarat not only in Human Development Index (of which GDP too is a component), but also in Per Capita Income, and Life Expectancy!
Shows how over-rated is the so called governance ability of Narendra Modi! Also indicates the failure of the "trickle down model" for economic development....
At the India Today Conclave, Modi claimed that the National Sample Survey found persistent poverty in Gujarat -- because of poor Biharis etc who work in the factories of Ahmedabad and Surat!
What does this mean? That it is okay with Modi that workers in these factories are paid far below the legally mandated minimum wages. In Kerala too almost all manual labourers come from Bihar, Orissa etc. But the wages they get are such so as not to cause the HDI of Kerala to lowered by the poverty of the migrant workers.
Modi showed utter callousness about the prevalence of malnutrition among poor people of Gujarat. He talks about malnutrition as if this is what is suffered by kids who refuse to drink milk despite goading by rich parents; and by rich young girls who control their diet to retain slim figures.
He had said as much earlier to an American journalist. And now he repeated the same nonsense at the India Today Conclave. And yet, so many in the middle class all over India clamour to have this man as the Prime Minister of India. Shame!
Those who sweep the floors in Dubai and in Kerala are paid well for their labours. So what is there to grudge about this?
In Gujarat too people sweep the floors -- but the sweepers are paid a pittance for their efforts. Is it that paying living wages to people who do "dirty jobs" is against the law of nature?
My last comment showed that Krishnakumar is factually wrong -- blinded by his admiration for a flawed model for development. You go on to swallow his bad argument and say, "The individual debt average is the real pointer". If so, please tell that Narendra Modi and to Manmohan Singh! I have given references to show that Gujarat and "all India" have higher per capta debt than Kerala.
And to Kerala's credit, the governments there have apparently us USED the debt more efficiently than by the Gujarat government.
Robbing Peter to pay Paul is the principle of graded taxation! Just last month, we saw the news of how Obama is to introduce tax on the super rich in that country. You may read about this at:- http://articles.latimes.com/2011/sep/20/opinion/la-oe-ackerman-wealth-tax-20110920. Let me quote:-
"President Obama is right to insist on the 'Buffett rule': Millionaires should not be paying income tax at a rate lower than their secretaries'. But correcting this inequity is only a small step toward fairness.
The more serious inequality problem facing the United States involves overall wealth, not just income. While the top 1% of Americans earned 21% of the nation's income, they owned a staggering 35% of the wealth in 2006-07, the most recent year for which statistics are available. We should be taxing that wealth directly, and not merely focusing on million-dollar incomes."
Modi too is robbing Peter to pay Paul. What makes Modi's action particularly cruel and insensitive is the fact that here Peter is the poor man, and Paul the billionaire...
May be, this lack of emapthy for the poorer people (as in the denigration of people who "sweep the floor in Dubai air ports") shows the persistent cultural hold of the caste system. It is this ideology drives Modi to spend government money to dole out concessions to Adanis and the Tatas while the poor people have to contend with low minimum wages and severe malnutrition. According to this social attitude, It is "the law of nature" that the poor are poor and the rich are rich -- this being the result of "the eternal law of karma". What can we expect from some one whose ideology is hindutva?
I happy that you acknowledge the "growth of Kerala"! But you have sadly missed the main point that I make!
No, I am NOT making claims as to what led up to the high HDI in the State! Nor am I highlighting the achievements of the "Kerala Model" in isolation.
I am COMPARING Kerala's success with the poor performance of Gujarat. Thus, besides offering your own thesis as to what led up to Kerala's success, you also need to explain Gujarat's failure! But you chose to remain silent on that!
Your claim on what resulted in Kerala's better performance (compared to Gujarat) would seem to imply that Gujaratis lack "drive" -- and that they are disinclined "to travel out to find a job" and would rather depend "on their government to provide one"! You are of course miserably wrong on both counts. Gujaratis are just as (if not more) enterprising as Keralites; and the Gujarati just as much wanderlust as the Malayali. (Along with Keralites and Punjabis, Gujaratis show great propensity to travel around the world in search of better fortunes!)
And you seem to throw figures rather flippantly merely to buttress your cherished dogma -- and then go on to make the wrong inference. When you say Kerala's Per Capita Debt is "Rs. 24,000/-", why don't yo compare this with that of Gujarat? Let me help by quoting from http://www.indiatribune.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8498:gujarats-per-capita-debt-set-to-rise-by-46-&catid=125:general-news&Itemid=400 :-
"The state’s total public debt is projected to rise further by Rs. 20,000 crore to reach Rs. 159,552 crore by the end of 2013-14, which would translate into a per capita debt of Rs. 26,400 on each Gujarati."
And India's per capita debt is Rs 33,000 (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/At-Rs-33000-per-capita-debt-in-India-increases-by-23/articleshow/13277789.cms). Which is higher than that of Kerala's (contrary to your claim) and also higher than Gujarat's.
And whatever may be the causes that led up to high HDI in Kerala, and the much lower HDI in Gujarat (despite higher GDP), the fact is that this has happened in spite of Kerala politicians (whom you revile) and despite "strikes, disturbances & destruction". Which means that the type of politicians that Kerala has, and the "strikes" are not AS BAD as you think! Despite these, Kerala has achieved high HDI! Right?
Historically, the condition of the common man has improved ONLY as a result of popular movements and struggles -- anywhere in the world. Never has this happened as a result of a trickle down as some people are given the freedom (and concessions, as in Gujarat) to make obscene profits.
You are free to disagree with me. But Kerala's practical success denies you the pleasure or pointing out the State's "failure" -- in order to bash our politicians and our social struggles!
The proof of the pudding is in the eating!
I think that Krishna Kumar has a valid point here. The individual debt average is the real pointer and it goes to show how the state may have morphed the HDI by implementing policies like"robbing Peter to pay Paul " ! If there is real generation of wealth and its equitable distribution, many states in India would have qued up north of Walayar to learn the tricks of the trade rather than shun investing in the state, which includes the natives ! It will be even interesting to learn that the cost of living in the National Capital is cheaper than living even in rural Kerala ! Modi may not be a perfect political icon but the state was receptive to ideas in Co-operative industry much earlier, pioneered by Kurien and Paul Pothen who are great Keralites whose ideas did not sell in their native land ! What is the fate of MILMA and FACT in your state ? What percentage of inward remittance in Gujarat goes to improve their well being ? Figures do not speak but actual living in the respective place does ! Keralites sweep the floor in Dubai air ports but will expect a "Pondy" to do the job at home !
I feel there is nothing much for the political class to gloat on the the growth of Kerala. This has been possible only because of the drive of Malayalees, who travelled out to find a job rather than depend on their government to provide one.
Without the deposits poured in to Kerala for decades together, from the enterprising Keralites who worked out of the state, "Kerala Model" every politician claim credit for would have been a Mirage.
The per capita debt figures of Rs.24,000/-plus, which is far high than the national average, shows the mismanagment of the economy by successive governments, coupled with the strikes, disturbances & distruction brought in by the political class irrespective of whether they are left, right or centre!!
My take on Modi's speech is just the opposite of yours. It was mostly mouthing of inanities and platitudes, but the slip showed up now and then -- revealing the man's anti-democratic political ideology.
This was Modi's contempt for "rights-based entitlement" (which is a well defined and key principle of all liberal democracies) and preference for the undefined "spirit of enterprise"-- and his preference for invoking nationalist "pride and ownership" to take the country forward. This, I feel is a regressive and dangerous political agenda. (Kerala's resounding success in raising HDI shows that success is indeed possible IN SPITE of a stress on "rights-based entitlement" (with strikes, lock-outs and all). So how this "flawed"? Can there be a better measure for "development" than HDI? What is that, according to you?)
Modi's dishonesty and shiftiness was evident from the evasive answers he gave to the most important questions on Gujarat's relatively low HDI, prevailing malnutrition, and the 2002 riots.
Coming to your response to my last comment, what I said about the myth of "trickle down" effect was not an expression of my subjective "view". This is a statement of fact based on Gujarat's low HDI, Per Capita Income, despite high GDP and despite being an industrialised State.
You said "all round development mean greater opportunities for us to contribute as citizens in our own individual capacities and ultimately the group would stand to benefit from the fruit of the labour."
Several errors in the above.
Firstly, Gujarat's development is narrow and not "all round". It has failed to raise HDI and Per Capita Income despite high GDP. Health indices are pathetic. What do you mean "all round development"? (On the other hand, Kerala's development has been far more all round. Apart from high HDI, Kerala's GDP too is high enough for the State to be ranked 7th among all States of India. In fact, GDP also contributes to the computation of the composite index of HDI.)
When is the "ultimate" benefit (that you so flippantly talk of) going to come?
Is it not a convenient dogma that individuals working for their own profits will somehow translate to "benefit for the group"? Has this happened anywhere in the world?
Experience of developed nations is Europe, US, Canada, Australia etc show that "benefits" can reach "the group" only when the government takes initiative to appropriately regulate private business; and only when the government actively steps in to provide universal social security, old age pension and healthcare -- all which need to be seen as rights and entitlements. (On this issue too, Modi's ideology is regressive).
For an alternate perspective, please read the article in today's The Hindu by P. Sainath, "The feeding frenzy of kleptocracy". You can access this at http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/sainath/the-feeding-frenzy-of-kleptocracy/article4513159.ece
Appreciate your taking time to explain and refer me to relatively recent stats. I'll take a look at it.
I placed my earlier comments based on the article that Minister Tharoor referred to... Sorry, footnotes / disclaimers may have missed my attention. I referred to both "man-made" and "nature-imposed" crisis.
I am glad however that CM Modi occupies one of the prominent position in the league of political leaders who choose to radiate positivity (akin to Minister Tharoor). It is impressive to note the "matter of fact" plainspeak (at tonight's India Conclave 2013 by India Today Group) about how a bureaucrat from Kerala inspired him to emulate for/in Gujarat a public program that the bureaucrat championed in Kerala under the direction and auspices of Kerala Govt. His humility and sincerity of purpose showed when he credited it to the bureaucrat on whose advise the CM learnt the potential and best way to implement such a program. This is far-more hope-generating than forecefully be seen to "shun" someone... I guess, given a certain degree of cynisism that exists today, we will be better off with positivity and positive influence rather than sqabbling and shunning.
Regarding your view on the rate of trickle down effect, I realize and am comfortable in my whole-hearted belief that you are entitled to an opinion. This is a topic that surely must be understood in greater detail before a verdict is passed. :) At a high-level, I am inclined to believe that all round development mean greater opportunities for us to contribute as citizens in our own individual capacities and ultimately the group would stand to benefit from the fruit of the labour.
One thing that sure is interesting to study deeper is the extent of impact to general welfare and well-being by consequential to significant presence of Left ideology in the mainstream politics in the State of Kerala. The continued culture of assertment of individual & collective rights - privileges have rather been pronounced if one went by the perception of "strikes" and "lock-outs" at Kerala based institutions including colleges and universities. Also, the ability of youngsters to aspire and move to the various educational centers of excellence outside of Kerala for school and higher education is noteworthy. The notion of "entitlements" without "engagement in efforts" seems flawed to me.