STORY OF ISLAMIC MASSACRES OF HINDUS – PART THREE: KHALJIS, TUGHLAQS, SAYYIDS AND LODIS
I have mentioned earlier in Part Two that following the death of Mohammad Ghori (who hailed from
Sometimes “Khalji” is also written as “khilji”. I have been exposed to the latter but am now following the former spelling used by Knapp. Two of the worst tyrannical human specimens amongst the Khaljis are Jalaluddin Khalji and Allauddin Khalji.
He reigned for a mere 6 years (1290-96). He did not thus have much time to indulge in large-scale destruction all over his territory given his Turkish blood. However, in 1291, he led an important expedition to the Rajput held Ranthambore and on the way he destroyed many temples in Jhain (Bundelkhand). Broken idols were taken to
He was unbeatable in his thirst for the Hindu blood. He ruled from 1296 to 1316. He was the worst amongst the 34 Sultans in terms of genocide. Cruel to the core, he assumed power after murdering Jalaluddin Khalji who was his uncle and also father-in-law! He also killed his cousins so that he was free to assume power unchallenged.
Gujarat Invasion: In 1297, Allauddin invaded Gujarat and destroyed the ancient
In 1298, Allauddin sent his generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan (blood-thirsty Laurel and Hardy) back into Gujarat where they plundered the forts of
The two Generals attacked Somnath, slaughtered Hindus, demolished the main reconstructed temple, looted the temple treasures and sent the broken idols to
Ranthambore Capture: We noted earlier that Jalaluddin failed in his attempt to capture the Ranthambore fort. In 1301, Allauddin led his forces and attacked Ranthambore which was ruled by Hammir Dev, a descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan. Hammir was a brave warrior and initially had the upper hand. However, some treacherous officers joined hands with Allauddin who won an ultimate victory after a long siege. The Rajput females committed “jauhar” rather than becoming slaves to the Sultan. Allauddin also destroyed the temples of Sawai-Madhopur and Jhain and had a large number of inhabitants killed.
Chittor Rani Padmini: Chittor was the capital of the
Invasion of the South: Allauddin Khalji was the first Muslim King to invade the south. Malik Kafur led the southern expeditions that resulted in immense killing and looting if not territorial acquisition. Hindu temples and sculptures were mindlessly destroyed during the campaigns which covered Devagiri (Maharashtra),
THE WORST AMONGST TUGHLAQS (1320-1414)
Allauddin Khilji’s death in 1316 after illnesses over three years, ended the Khalji Dynasty, which was followed by the Tughlaqs (from 1320) who were also Turkic in origin. Two of the Tughlaq Sultans deserve a treatment here, namely Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
MUHAMMAD BIN TUGHLAQ (r.1325-1351):
This gentleman is at once recognized as a “pagla” (mad) Sultan who shifted his capital from
Muhammad went on several expeditions into
His rebellious nephew Gurshasp had taken refuge with the rulers of Halebid and Kampili. The nephew was caught, killed and his flesh was cooked with rice and fed to elephants! His skin was stuffed and put on public display.
While annexing Kampili, many Hindus were taken as slaves to
FIROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ (r.1351-88):
Firoz Shah Tughlaq was Muhammad’s cousin. He had a very long rule of 37 years. He was a fanatic Islamic follower, and was particularly cruel towards Hindus. He hated Brahmins the most. The Firoz Shah Kotla ground in Delhi where cricket matches take place, takes his name.
None of the previous Sultans had conquered Orissa and hence Firoz Shah turned his attention to Orissa. Jagannath Puri temple was targeted and plundered. Many other temples and shrines were also razed. He wrote in his “Sirat-i-Firuz Shahi” that he ordered the image of Jagannatha to be perforated and disgraced by casting it to the ground.
Firoz’s tyrannical actions in Puri drove 1,00,000 Hindu people into an island off the coast, taking refuge there. The Sultan followed them and killed all the men. This is what he wrote in “Sirat-i-Firuz Shahi”: “The swordsmen of Islam turned the island into a basin of blood by the massacre of the unbelievers. Women with babies and pregnant ladies were haltered, manacled, festered, and enchained, and pressed as slaves into service in the house of every soldier”. Can there be worse barbarism than this?
Knapp writes; “ Later, Firoz Shah Tughlaq went back up north and destroyed the sacred shrine of Jvalamukhi at Kangra (Nagarkot). Then he took the main deity and sent it to
SAYYID DYNASTY AND
These Sultans had become weak. These Dynasties did not produce any significant tyrant. These Sultans tolerated the Hindus better than during the earlier Sultanate regimes. The Lodis were Pathans unlike other Sultans of Turkic blood. Yet, one Sultan namely Sikandar Lodi, was known for his deep hatred for the Hindus. He sacked
No attempt has been made here to point out to the plus factors of the Sultans, like their learning or poetic skill or love for art etc, as that is not the agenda here. The main aim has been to show the nature of the holocaust practised on the Hindus.
EPILOGUE: If the reader can spare nearly two full hours, it will be most worth-while to read the historian Prof. K.S.Lal's piece whose link I will provide in the comments column since the main blog accepts no link. He demolishes the Marxist historians and Aligarh historians who show the Sultans in a rather benign light! Besides he has revealed to us the directions from the Government of India to the writers of history which , to quote him, is: "Muslim rule should not attract any criticism. Destruction of temples by Muslim invaders and rulers should not be mentioned and forcible conversions to Islam should be ignored and deleted, etc. etc."
Let us agree to disagree!!
Zakir Naik is not an authority and is known as a rabble-rouser!
You will never give a straight answer to the acts of demolition of thousands of temples and idols. I don't need that answer from you, anyway.
Cheers and regards!
You have written the valediction but do permit me to show the glaring contradiction.
You say that what ever the Prophet said later if in contradiction with that said earlier does not get abrogated, but is still valid, because of the stature of the person that Allah is ! That is against pure logic. And to explain the contradiction, you discover a Dr.Naik who is adept in manufacturing new contexts for explaining rusty laws,even to justify a mayhem with all ingenuity that is worth the petro-dollors which support his private company ! It is like the resolution passed last week in the All Indian Muslim Conference (Jamat-I-Hind) espousing the gender equality (within the ambit of Shariat) with not a member of the fair sex permitted on on the board of governors ! Reading some of the comments from your own community who have managed to be liberated by modern education, about the obscurantism of those in religious authority, one does not foresee any improvement or modification of the medieval mindset to which the religion is tightly clamped for ages !
The matter is quite simple. We agree that historical events are irreversible. We don't hate your religion and on the contrary admire the great devotion it has imbibed in millions across the world.
We only wish to insist that how beautiful would it be, if only, it discards the exclusive singularity,develops tolerance for different paths to realization, and totally abjures violence as a tool for religious propagation !
If only it does this, no man across the world. of whatever religious persuasion, will ever feel un-comfortable to be your loving neighbour, a fellow citizen and a co-traveller in the same plane !
It is not me who is misleading the readers but rather you, through your skewed interpretation of the Quran that I strongly suspect you to have gathered from Islam hate sites.
As regards your comments on abrogation of Quranic verses let me state at the outset that it does not befit the stature of Allah that he cancel or "abrogate" something that he has revealed earlier.
Here is a link to a video response by one of the learned Muslim scholars of Islam - Dr. Zakir Naik on abrogation of Quranic verses. Hope that clarifies or should We say " abrogates " your understanding on the same.
Thank you for taking the pains to post all of those Quranic verses that you believe prescribe violence against the disbelievers. There is a context within which to read those verses and in light of that context things would show up very differently than they would sans that context and which is what you have been doing and thereby misleading your Hindu brethren on the true nature of Islam.
To explain better here is yet another link to a video response by the same scholar addressing this very issue.
What happened in the past cannot be undone. The alleged atrocities committed by Muslim invaders are indeed reprehensible and saddening, but not sanctioned, as I said earlier by the Quran.
My intent has been to set the record straight as regards the true nature of Islam .
Islam is submission to the will of Allah, to His guidance ( The Holy Quran) that was sent to mankind through His last and final messenger - Muhammad (peace be upon him) and which affirmed the guidance that was sent through numerous messengers (peace be upon them all) before him and the books (Taurat, Injil etc) that were sent with them.
Islam is derived from the root 'salam' meaning peace. It teaches man to be at peace with his Creator - Allah and with the creation around him. It exhorts him to fight against all that spread injustice, corruption and immorality on Earth.
It teaches compassion towards parents, children and the needy.
It forbids the killing of innocents and prescribes stern punishments for murder, adultery, stealing etc.
It invites people to truth and forbids compulsion in religion.
Muslims are required to spread the message of Islam not through force, but by being examples of good Muslims and through good conduct.
I would like to wind my discussion with you and the rest - with the following verse from the QUran :
Quran ( 17:81)
And say: "Truth has (now) arrived, and Falsehood perished: for Falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish."
You can continue to peddle your poison of hatred over your blogs as much as you can but your attempts to misinform and mislead readers will not bear any fruits.
InshaAllah , Islam will continue to make its way into the hearts of those that seek truth, in a peaceful way, much like the proverbial elephant that marches on majestically and does not get swayed away or fazed by the barking of dogs along its way.
Dear Krishnan Balaji,
Thanks for your views. I agree there.
Mr.Shafi is only wilfully misleading us.
There are hundreds of verses in the 114 suras (chapters) of the Koran that are self-contradictory. That is because the verses were written from revelations to the Prophet over nearly 20 years and the nature of revelations have also changed with time. Hence the standard Islamic interpretational practice is that the later verses in time will supercede the former verses where there is a contradiction. Perhaps you don't know this. And Mr.Shafi thinks that I don't know it. Hence, he is fooling us.
Pl go through my latest reply to Mr.Shafi.
Cheers and regards!
For heaven's sake, don't indulge in obfuscation, misleading and cheating. Koran is not always consistent in terms of the verses in the 114 suras. The nasikh verses (the later ones in time) make the mansukh verses a nullity.
Here is something for the readers to show how you are fooling them:
"Let there be no compulsion in religion; truth stands out clear from error" (Sura 2.256).
Apologists for Islam often quote this verse, and most Westerners, unfamiliar with the Koran and imagining that it must obey the same theological logic as the Christian Bible, assume that Islamic scripture mandates religious toleration toward non-Muslims. That assumption is inaccurate.
The Koran includes many abrogated verses, called mansukh, and abrogating verses, nasikh; the latter cancel the former, rendering them invalid, though they nevertheless remain in the Koran and are deceptively quoted, for Western consumption, as though they still represented genuine Islamic beliefs. Nasikh and mansukh are legion: Of the Koran's 114 suras (chapters), only 43 are without abrogated or abrogating verses. That is naturally surprising, and so unexpected that few Westerners are aware that significant segments of the Koran have been theologically annulled. Mohammed's non-Muslim contemporaries were just as surprised.
How does one know, when two verses are contradictory, which is abrogated and which is abrogating? It is a question of date: Later texts abrogate earlier texts whenever there are inconsistencies between them. The Koranic verses that teach tolerance and peace, in particular those that prohibit compulsion in religion, are among the earliest of Mohammed's many revelations and are thus liable to abrogation, whenever Allah felt the inclination to revoke his immutable word. Although Islam, unlike Judaism and Christianity, received its revelation from a single person within a short period of time, roughly twenty years, Mohammed was nonetheless able to impose upon his followers the implausible belief that the inerrant Muslim God had routinely changed his mind.
The pacific, tolerant message of Sura 2.256 reflects the historical circumstances of its composition. Islam was still then decidedly a minority faith and Mohammed and his small band of followers, in Medina and surrounded by non-Muslim enemies, were threatened with destruction. The early Koran of necessity presented religious tolerance as a divine command because nascent Islam had not yet acquired the physical power to compel conversion: "The Apostle had not been given permission to fight or allowed to shed blood ... he had simply been ordered to call men to God, endure insult, and forgive the ignorant" (Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah).
But when Islam became powerful, Allah's eternal message changed. Islam could now "call people by the sword" -- that is, compel conversion -- and accordingly "verses of the sword" were conveniently revealed to the Prophet, verses that sanction and indeed command conversion of the Infidel by armed violence, which historically would be Islam's preferred method. Sura 2.256 was thus abrogated by a later verse, composed after Mohammed had begun to prepare his new Muslim empire for Jihad against the non-Muslim world: "Slay the idolaters wherever you find them, and take them, and confine them, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush" (Sura 9.5). This "verse of the sword" not only abrogates 2.256, but also abrogates well over a hundred earlier verses that formerly taught peace and tolerance toward non-believers.
Only the later, abrogating verse now represents authentic Muslim teaching.
Islam: "Religion of Peace"
"Those that make war against Allah and His apostle and spread disorder in the land shall be slain or crucified or have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides, or be banished from the land. They shall be held up to shame in this world and sternly punished in the hereafter." (Sura 5.33)
"O believers, take not Jews and Christians as friends; they are friends of each other. Whoso of you makes them his friends is one of them. Allah guides not the people of the evildoers." (Sura 5.51)
"Allah revealed His will to the angels, saying: 'I shall be with you. Give courage to the believers. I shall cast terror into the hearts of the infidels. Strike off their heads, strike off the very tips of their fingers!' That was because they defied Allah and His apostle. He that defies Allah and his apostle shall be sternly punished by Allah." (Sura 8.12-13)
"In order that Allah may separate the pure from the impure, put all the impure ones [i.e. non-Muslims] one on top of another in a heap and cast them into hell. They will have been the ones to have lost." (Sura 8.37)
"And fight them until there is no more fitnah (disbelief and polytheism, i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah alone (in the whole world). But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah) then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do." (Sura 8.39).
"Muster against them [i.e. non-Muslims] all the men and cavalry at your command, so that you may strike terror into the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides them who are unknown to you but known to Allah." (Sura 8.60)
"O Prophet, urge on the believers to fight. If there be twenty of you, patient men, they will overcome two hundred; if there be a hundred of you, they will overcome a thousand unbelievers, for they are a people who understand not." (Sura 8.65)
"It is not for any Prophet to have prisoners until he make wide slaughter in the land." (Sura 8.67).
"Fight those who believe not in Allah and the Last Day and do not forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden -- such men as practice not the religion of truth, being of those who have been given the Book [i.e. Jews and Christians] -- until they pay the tribute out of hand and have been humbled." (Sura 9.29)
"If you do not go to war, He will punish you sternly, and will replace you by other men." (Sura 9.39)
"Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and deal harshly with them. Hell shall be their home: an evil fate." (Sura 9.73)
"They [i.e. faithful Muslims] will fight for the cause of Allah, they will slay and be slain." (Sura 9.111)
"O believers, fight the unbelievers who are near to you, and let them find in you a harshness, and know that Allah is with the godfearing." (Sura 9.123)
"When We resolve to raze a city, We first give warning to those of its people who live in comfort. If they persist in sin, judgement is irrevocably passed, and We destroy it utterly." (Sura 17.16)
"We have destroyed many a sinful nation and replaced them by other men. And when they felt Our Might they took to their heels and fled. They were told: 'Do not run away. Return to your comforts and to your dwellings. You shall be questioned all.' 'Woe betide us, we have done wrong' was their reply. And this they kept repeating until We mowed them down and put out their light." (Sura 21.11-15)
"When you meet the unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and, when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly. Then grant them their freedom or take a ransom from them, until war shall lay down her burdens." (Sura 47.4)
"Mohammed is Allah's apostle. Those who follow him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another." (Sura 48.29)
"May the hands of Abu Lahab [Mohammed's uncle, who had refused to embrace Islam] perish! Nothing shall his wealth and gains avail him. He shall be burnt in a flaming fire, and his wife, laden with firewood, shall have a rope of fiber around her neck!" (Sura 111.1-5)
Cheers and regards!
I greatly appreciate your effort to defend the basic tenets of your religion and transfer the criminal culpability to the shoulders of individual war lords and the sacrilege of the places of other people's worship was to wreck a psychological blow before subjugation. But on the contrary, you will find that after razing temples to the ground they had built mosques and buried the idols in the entrance for their kinsmen to trample on. The loot,plunder and demolition of prime temples of Hindu worship that lie in Varanasi,Ayodhya,Somnath and Mathura are concrete evidence of religious fanaticsm and not some stray act to cow down the people of India ! To this day, you can see the desecration at Mandu where the king Baz Bahadur had inverted the Moorthis and embedded them on the walls of the fort which will inflame communal passions. It is un-like the creation in paper of Satanic Verses or the Danish cartoons but are idols cast in stone, still the Hindus have not swatted a fly, leave alone issuing any Fatwa against any alleged offenders and their progeny in retaliation ! This is where I mentioned about our tolerance, forgiveness and plurality.
Your sharp intellect is perceptible when you mention the analogy about the Benz and the mad driver who crashes it , but , unfortunately here the manufacturer prescribes it under the user's manual vide Quran 5.32. ........for spreading mischief in the land when taking a life is pemissible! (What constitutes mischief perhaps a moulvi will decide ?)
Now for us to get in to a religious debate, we may both have to study Quraan and Rig Veda and it is not our intention to pinpoint the imperfections in either ! The proof of the pudding is in the eating. We had many inhuman practices in our society from days yore, but with advancement of human thought, had compelled us to jettison such customs that are not in consonance with commonsense.Even the church had gone back some hundreds of years to record its repentance for Galileo and Kepler ! All religious edicts are prescribed in particular context of time and geography which circumscribes the thinking process and thus have a shelf life which require some shedding besides up-dating based on the developing awareness about the physical world and growing knowledge ! Obviously all equations and perspectives about nature and man when the earth was flat or when the sun was going round may not stand to-days scientific scrutiny ! Any past cruelty perpetrated on a wrong premise has to be acknowledged and repented such that the oneness of man becomes a reality. The Germans have done it with Jews,the Americans have made it up with the Red-indians ,the Brits. have made reparations with their former colonies,the west has made it with black Africa but the Islamic world is still shut behind the dark ages not only from the out-side world but also from within ! This is the scourge of the modern times !
Dear VSG and Krishnan Bala,
My convictions are based on my understanding of my religion and its tenets and not on lineage as you assume. Based upon my understanding and knowledge of the Quran, I find it hard to comprehend your premise that the "Muslim" invaders were driven to commit all of their atrocities against non muslims of their times by their religious zeal.
I would prefer to take a different approach. To me they appear to be driven by political ambitions to control land and wealth belonging to the Hindu rulers of those times. If establishment of Islam was their primary objective then, one would have expected them to follow all of the religious diktats of the Quran instead of selectively following only the allegedly Jihadist injunctions of the Quran.
How would you explain their failure to follow other Quranic injunctions to refrain from forced conversions and needless killings that I posted in my earlier comments and doing so again for your benefit?
Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects Taghut (evil) and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trust worthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things. " ]
Quran 5:32 "...if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people..."
Some of these Muslim rulers were mentioned to indulge in drinking and having hundreds of wives which again was forbidden in Islam.How then could one assume them to be subservient to the Islamic interests?
These itself would suffice as arguments that the largescale killing and atrocities that the Muslim invaders indulged in were a doing of their own will to serve their geopolitical ambitions and not something sanctioned by the Quran. Forcible conversions and temple desecretions were merely tools employed by them to inflict phsycological damage to facilitate subjugation of the masses , not to serve any Islamic call to increase the Muslim headcount.
Its funny how being muslim and committing a crime gets to be construed as islam and the Quran sanctioning that act while the offender's own level of religious adherance to the Islamic tenets is conveniently disregarded.
Any Muslim with a reasonable knowledge of the Quran would I know for a fact that most of your comments as regards Quran's position on slavery , Jihad, oppression of non muslims etc are far from truth and delusional. You really need to drop that heavy baggage of prejudice in order to appreciate the wisdom of the Quran and dissociate it from the wrong doings of the Muslim invaders.
Dear Krishnan Balaji,
Your action is like blowing the conch to the deaf. But that needs to be done, since the deafness is not natural but is pretended.
Most guys have little conscience and will obfuscate things endlessly.
Dear Shafi ek,
You seem to be a very reasonable person unlike the logic and soundness of the philosophy you seem to be burdened with because of the reason of your birth in a particular family ! Unlike your conviction based on lineage, my being born of Hindu parents grants me the greatest privilege to accept or reject any philosophy that is not in consonance with my commonsense and at the same time enables me to appreciate the sentiments and sensibilities of other religionists that inhabit this planet. Fortunately we also are blessed to live in a secular democracy that has not out-lawed any other religionists of this world both to profess and practice within the ambit of our constitution.The benefit that we have derived from our broad education makes us believe that after all of us as human beings, are an evolved species, which has been made possible entirely by the thought process. This is central to all our belief systems because, human beings as a biological organism had survived even before Hinduism, Christianity or Islam was born and the establishment of various philosophies have only advanced our thinking and rendered a meaning to our existence and mission for the short span from birth to death that we all transit through this terrestial life. The central theme being humanity imbibed with compassion, love,brother-hood,tolerance for plurality, inclusiveness and respect for different belief systems is ingrained in our psyche from immemorial that informs not only our personal life but as a national policy scripted in to our constitution. This is part and parcel of our heritage that has stood us in good stead on this side of the Indus and whether you wish to call it Hinduism or by any other name makes us little different. It is for this reason that even after having been subjugated for a thousand years by marauding invaders by horse back or on ships and by land have we ever uttered a word that will resonate with that of a John Howard or practised state craft that will resemble the Japanese. I am sure that most modern countries follow this principle of equality and respect for others' faith. You can personally witness the Muslims who migrate in to these countries and enjoy the liberty and luxury of a modern democracy after having been frustrtated in their own theocratic states where their own life was un- certain depending upon whether they belonged to the ruling sect or otherwise. I need not remind you, that the Ahmedias are apostates in Pakistan, Dawoodi Bohras were driven out much earlier,Islamias are un-wanted, while the whole of Arab countries are simmering with hatred for each other depending upon whether one is a sunni or a shia ! Yet all of them subscribe to the five basic tenets of Islam but remain most dis-contented in their land of origin . They are also most vociferous in complaining about not being allowed to practise the whole hog when some basic restrictions are applied keeping with the safety and security of other citizens,when permitted to settle in the western countries !
Adolph Hitler sent 6 million jews to the gas chamber and if it was branded as racial genocide. The murderous Afghans,Turks,and the Arabs who came with sword on horse backs plundered,sacrileged and raped the peace loving Indians through 800 years of our history giving rise to a new breed of Indians who were half Hindu and half Muslim but yet over a period of time grew up to form one fifth of our population as on date. You are pleased to call this as a geo-political event !
We as a country or as race have never set-out armies beyond the boundaries and coveting another man's riches and women-folk for satiating our greed and there is absolutely no trace of any regret or apology in your tone when reminded of the carnage that your ancestores were involved in. If Jihad was not an embedded as an article of faith in your basic tenet, you may have had occasion to consider !
You may even let the whole world believe, that from Lockerbie through Oklahoma and 9/11 and resulting back-lash of Iraq and Afghan wars also geo-political by the same standards ! But the whole of civilized world had become wiser after the event and the effective steps initiated leaves no exceptions and no one in doubt that this holy war will atlast come to some good end, perhaps after paing back in the same coin, that the original transaction started. I must be failing in my duty if I do not thank, Mr.VSG for having brought the learned and erudite, opinion of Stephen Knapp, K.S.Lal et al. in placing the historical events in the proper perspective such that the posterity will know the failings of a victimised nation.
Yet no Indian ever feels that the muslim student, colleague,employee,neighbour and commuter that he encounters in day to day life ever feels any thing other than being a brother or a good friend that he can rely on in times of need and also one to whom a shoulder can be extended when in anguish or pain !
Hindus will have their internal quarrels and differences but on a considerably smaller scale than in older times and ages! In every house, some arguments and differences do arise. But when I deal with the invaders and the Sultans, I am only talking about outsiders who sat on our heads and made us non-entities. We need to be on the vigil and ensure the preservation of our culture!
Cheers and regards!